Hepatitis A is a viral infection of the liver spread by eating or drinking contaminated food and water. It is more common in regions of the world with poor sanitation and not enough safe water. The hepatitis A vaccination is effective for prevention.
Typhoid fever is a highly contagious bacterial infection that is spread by eating or drinking contaminated food or water. People traveling to areas where the disease is common, vaccination is recommended. In 2015, 12.5 million new cases worldwide were reported and resulted in about 149,000 deaths worldwide.
The Meningitis ACWY vaccine helps to protect against disease caused by four of the main groups of meningococcal bacteria - A, C, W and Y. The Meningitis ACWY vaccine is used as a travel vaccine for travellers visiting Saudi Arabia for Hajj or Umrah and those visiting countries with a higher incidence of meningococcal disease, such as parts of Africa and Latin America.
A combination vaccine called Revaxis is available to protect adults against diphtheria, tetanus and polio.
Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection of the respiratory tract. It remains a problem in parts of Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, Russia, Central and South East Asia where vaccine coverage is low.
Tetanus is a serious disease of the central nervous system that is caused by bacteria that is found in soil. The disease is spread through open cuts and wounds that have been contaminated with infected soil.
Polio is a highly infectious disease caused by a virus. It invades the nervous system and can cause total paralysis in a matter of hours. Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria are considered the countries with the highest risk of the disease. However, the disease can be spread to individuals in other countries who are not protected against the disease and outbreaks do occur.
Yellow Fever is caused by the yellow fever virus and is spread from the bite of an infected mosquito.
In 2013, yellow fever resulted in about 127,000 severe infections and 45,000 deaths, with nearly 90 percent of these occurring in African nations. A safe and effective vaccine against yellow fever exists, and some countries require proof of vaccination for travellers.
Rabies is a viral infection that is spread when an infected animal scratches or bites a human or other animal. Saliva from an infected animal can also transmit rabies if the saliva comes into contact with the eyes, mouth, or nose.
Immunising people before they are exposed is recommended for those at high risk, including those who work with animals or who spend prolonged periods in areas of the world where rabies is common.
Rabies caused about 17,400 human deaths worldwide in 2015. More than 95% of human deaths from rabies occur in Africa and Asia.
Japanese encephalitis is an infection of the brain caused by the mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis virus. While most infections result in little or no symptoms, occasional inflammation of the brain occurs. In these cases, symptoms may include headache, vomiting, fever, confusion and seizures.
Prevention is generally with the Japanese encephalitis vaccine, which is both safe and effective. Other measures include avoiding mosquito bites.
The disease occurs in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. About 3 billion people live in areas where the disease occurs. About 68,000 symptomatic cases occur a year, with about 17,000 deaths.
TICK BORNE ENCEPHALITIS
Tick Borne Encephalitis is a infection transmitted by the bite of infected ticks or (rarely) through the non-pasteurized milk of infected cows.
Ticks live in forests and grassy areas. You're more at risk of being bitten if you do activities such as hiking and camping.
The disease is most common in Central and Eastern Europe, and Northern Asia. About ten to twelve thousand cases are documented a year but the rates vary widely from one region to another.
Prevention include tick-bite prevention, tick checks and vaccination.